NOTE: This information is offered by the IRS for Tax Year 2017. This includes both rules for making the payment (if you don't have health insurance) and rules about who is "exempt" (does not have to pay).
If you did not have healthcare coverage then you could face a tax penalty under the Affordable Care Act, known as the "Shared Responsibility Payment." But this is not true for everyone, especially low-income households.
Immigrants who are not official U.S. citizens may be eligible for Supplemental Security Income, or SSI, if they meet certain qualifications. SSI can help people who are elderly or disabled, and have little or no income.